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November 23, 2017

Psychosocial Task Development Inventory

By Dr. Richard Boyum
* Based on the work of Don Hamachek, Ph.D., Michigan State University

Below you will find an inventory that will allow you to evaluate the degree to which you have successfully developed levels of trust, autonomy, initiative, industry and identity. These inventory sheets are an adaptation of Eric Erickson's Psychosocial Developmental Tasks. They should be used to give you information that will help you find your strenghts and weaknesses that help in your personal, emotional development. Each category has 10 statements. Each statement is presented in terms of its' polar opposite. This means that the strength and weakness of a characteristic are presented.

You will note at the top of each stage there is a scale from +10 to -10. You are to assign yourself a single point value on each item. First dtermine whether your score is above or below 0 by reading both statements. Then assign yourself a number based on your own intuitive responses.

At the end of each checklist there is an opportunity for you to total your pluses and minuses. Substract the minus total from the plus total and determine wheter your total score is negative or positive. Then read the implicit attitudes that are appropriate for your plus or minus score. By completing the inventories you can determine which developmental tasks are your strong and weak points. In addition, you may find individual characteristics that you wish to work on. You may also find things that you are much stronger in than you had previously thought. Should you have questions about these items, please feel free to discuss them with a member of the counseling center staff.

Table 1
Behavioral Expressions of a Sense of Trust and Mistrust
+       10       +       +       +5       +       +       +     0       -       -       -5       -       -       -     -10
They:They:
____ 1. are able to ask others for help or emotional suppport without over-doing it ____ 1. tend to have trouble asking others for help or emotional support
____ 2. are inclined to believe that others will come through for them, unless there is good reason not to believe that ____ 2. are inclined to believe that others will not come through for them, even when there is no reason to believe that
____ 3. start with the assumption that people are generally good. ____ 3. start with the assumption that people are bad or evil.
____ 4. tend to focus on the positive aspects of others' behavior. ____ 4. tend to focus on the negative aspects of others' behavior.
____ 5. tend to behave in a relatively dislosing and open manner when around others. ____ 5. tend to behave in a relatively guarded and closed manner when around others.
____ 6. find it relatively easy to receive (favors, compliments, gifts, etc.) from other people, but prefer a balance of giving and receiving ____ 6. find it rather difficult to receive (favors, compliments, gifts, etc.) from other people, and find it easier to be the giver than the taker.
____ 7. have no trouble sharing their possessions, the "things" in their lives with other people. ____ 7. have problems sharing their possessions, the "things" in their lives with other people
____ 8. are not particularly fearful of disclosing themselves, even their more negative qualities, to other people. ____ 8. are very hesitant about disclosing themselves particularly their negative qualities, to other people.
____ 9. tend to have a generally optimistic worldview without having Pollannaish or being unrealistic about it ____ 9. tend to have a generally pessimistic worldview even when things are going well and sometimes particularly when things are going well.
____ 10. are inclined to believe that other people know what is best for themselves, even though they may privately feel differently about others choices. ____ 10. are inclined to believe that other people do not know what is best for themselves, and prefer to tell others what to do.
Total Plus ______Total Minus ______
Implicit Attitude:
1. You're O.K.
2. Life is generally fair and good to me.
3. I'm willing to share what I have.
Implicit Attitude:
1. You're not O.K.
2. Life is generally unfair and unkind to me.
3. I'm not willing to share what I have.

Table 2
Behavioral Expressions of a Sense of Autonomy and Shame and Doubt
+       10       +       +       +5       +       +       +     0       -       -       -5       -       -       -     -10
They:They:
____ 1. like to make their own decisions, particularly about matters important to them ____ 1. prefer being told what to do rather than make their own decisions
____ 2. are unable to say no to requests made of them without feeling guilty. ____ 2. have problems saying no to requests made of them.
____ 3. are able to express themselves in terms of what they "will" or "want" to do. ____ 3. are inclined to express themselves in terms of what they "should" do or "ought" to do.
____ 4. tend to resist being dominated by people wanting to control them. ____ 4. tend to allow themselves to be dominated by others, even though they may not like it.
____ 5. are able to work well by themselves or with others, depending on the situation. ____ 5. are not comfortable working by themselves, particularly when they know work will be judged or evaluated.
____ 6. are inclined to get on with what needs to be done and remain task-persistent until finished. ____ 6. have trouble getting started with waht needs to be done; procrastination may be a key feature of this personality.
____ 7. can work easily with either open-ended or structured work assignments, although they may prefer more open-endedness. ____ 7. have problems working assignments, preferring more structure and direction.
____ 8. are able to listen to their own inner feelings when deciding what is right or wrong, appropriate or inappropriate ____ 8. have difficulty listening to their own inner feelings when deciding what is right or wrong, appropriate or inappropriate
____ 9. tend to feel relatively un-self-conscious and at ease when in group situations. ____ 9. tend to feel uneasy and self-conscious, and even embarassed, when in group situations.
____ 10. tend to want a certain amount of order and organization in their lives to reinforce feelings of personal control and self approval. ____ 10. tend to want things "just so" as one way of avoiding others' disapproval and criticism.
Total Plus ______Total Minus ______
Implicit Attitude:
1. I think I can do it.
2. This is what needs to be done.
3. I have something of value to offer.
Implicit Attitude:
1. I don't think I can do it.
2. Tell me what needs to be done
3. I have little of value to offer.

Table 3
Behavioral Expressions of a Stage of Initiative and Guilt
+       10       +       +       +5       +       +       +     0       -       -       -5       -       -       -     -10
They:They:
____ 1. prefer to get on with what needs to be done to complete the task at hand. ____ 1. tend to postpone, put off, put aside, and generally procrastinate starting.
____ 2. like accepting new challenges now and then. ____ 2. are inclined to resist new challenges.
____ 3. tend to be self starters. ____ 3. tend to be slow self-starters.
____ 4. tend to be effective leaders when in that position. ____ 4. tend to be ineffective leaders when in that position.
____ 5. tend to set goals and then set out to accomplish them. ____ 5. may set goals but have problems getting them accomplished.
____ 6. tend to have high energy levels. ____ 6. tend to have low energy levels.
____ 7. have a strong sense of personal adequacy. ____ 7. have a weak sense of personal adequacy.
____ 8. seem to enjoy "making things happen." ____ 8. prefer to remain in the background, preferring not to stir things up.
____ 9. are able to emotionally appreciate the idea that initiative begins and ends with the person, not the production it generates. ____ 9. may try to outrun their guilt with a tireless show of accomplishment, believing that efficient production may compensate for being a deficient person.
____ 10. have a balanced sense of right and wrong without being overly moralistic. ____ 10. tend to focus moralistically on those things in life that are "wrong."
Total Plus ______Total Minus ______
Implicit Attitude:
1. I will start now.
2. I enjoy new challenges.
3. This is what needs to be done and I will do it.
Implicit Attitude:
1. I will start tomorrow.
2. I prefer sticking with what I know.
3. This is what needs to be done, but who will do it?.

Table 4
Behavioral Expressions of a Sense of Industry and Inferiority
+       10       +       +       +5       +       +       +     0       -       -       -5       -       -       -     -10
They:They:
____ 1. enjoy learning about new things and ideas. ____ 1. do not particularly enjoy learning about new things and ideas.
____ 2. reflect a healthy balance between doing what they have to do and what they like to do. ____ 2. tend to concentrate
____ 3. reflect strong curiosities about how and why things work the way they do. ____ 3. are not terribly curious about how and why things work.
____ 4. enjoy experimenting with new combinations, new ideas, and arriving at new synthese. ____ 4. prefer staying with what is known; new ways do not attract them so much as do proven ways.
____ 5. are excited by the idea of being producers. ____ 5. tend to be threatened, even guilty, about the idea of being producers.
____ 6. like the recognition that producing things brings, which reinforces sense of industry. ____ 6. would like the recognition that production brings, but sense of inferiority stands in the way.
____ 7. develop a habit of work completion through steady attention and perserving diligence. ____ 7. develop a habit of work delay by ongoing procrastinations.
____ 8. have a sense of pride in doing at least one thing well. ____ 8. have problems taking pride in their work, believing it is not worth it.
____ 9. take criticism well and use it to improve their performance. ____ 9. take criticism poorly and use it as a reason to stop trying.
____ 10. end to have a strong sense of patience. ____ 10. tend to have a weak sense of persistence.
Total Plus ______Total Minus ______
Implicit Attitude:
1. I'm a pretty good learner
2. Being a producer excites me.
3. I'll work hard to succeed.
Implicit Attitude:
1. I'm not a very good learner.
2. Being a producer frightens me.
3. I'll work hard to avoid failing

Table 5
Behavioral Expressions of a Sense of Identity and Identity Confusion
+       10       +       +       +5       +       +       +     0       -       -       -5       -       -       -     -10
They:They:
____ 1. have a stable self-concept that does not easily change. ____ 1. tend to have an unstable self-concept marked by ups and downs.
____ 2. are able to combine short-term goals with long-range plans. ____ 2. tend to set short-term goals, but have trouble establishing long-range plans.
____ 3. are less susceptible to the shifting whims of peer pressure influences. ____ 3. are more susceptible to the shifting whims of peer pressure influences.
____ 4. tend to have reasonably high levels of self-acceptance. ____ 4. tend to have rather low levels of self-acceptance.
____ 5. are able to make decisions without undue wavering and indecisiveness. ____ 5. are apt to have trouble making decisions, fearing that they will be wrong.
____ 6. tend to be optimistic about themselves, others, and life generally. ____ 6. tend to have somewhat cynical attitudes about themselves, others, and life generally.
____ 7. tend to believe that they are responsible for what happens to them, good or bad. ____ 7. tend to believe that what happens to them is largely out of their hands, a matter of fate or breaks.
____ 8. are able to seek self-acceptance directly by being their own person. ____ 8. are inclined to seek self-acceptance indirectly by being what they believe others want them to be.
____ 9. are able to be physically and emotionally close to another person without fearing a loss of self. ____ 9. are inclined to have trouble being physically and emotionally close to another person without being either too dependent or too separate.
____ 10. tend to be cognitively flexible; their sense of self does not depend on being "right." ____ 10. tend to be cognitively inflexible; their sense of self resides heavily on being "right."
Total Plus ______Total Minus ______
Implicit Attitude:
1. I am this kind of person...
2. I'm not perfect, but I'm still O.K.
3. I can accept your shortcomings because I can accept my own.
Implicit Attitude:
1. I am not sure who I am as a person.
2. I should be much better/more than I am.
3. I have trouble accepting your shortcomings just as I have trouble accepting my own.

Table 6
Behavioral Expressions of a Sense of Intimacy and Isolation
+       10       +       +       +5       +       +       +     0       -       -       -5       -       -       -     -10
They:They:
____ 1. have been able to establish a firm sense of their own identity. ____ 1. have not been able to establish a firm sense of their own identity.
____ 2. tend to be tolerant and accepting of the differences perceived in other people. ____ 2. tend not to be particularly tolerant or accepting of differences perceived in other people.
____ 3. are willing and able to trust others and themselves in the relationships they form. ____ 3. are not particularly willing to trust either themselves or others in the relationships they form.
____ 4. are able to form close emotional bonds without fearing the loss of their own identity. ____ 4. are hesitant to form close emotional bonds because of fear of losing self-identity
____ 5. tend to develop cooperative, affiliative relationships with others. ____ 5. tend to develop competitive relationships with others, making cooperative efforts more difficult.
____ 6. find satisfaction in their affiliation with others but can comfortably isolate themselves and be alone when they choose. ____ 6. tend to prefer more separation from others; they feel uncomfortable when affiliations with others are too close.
____ 7. are willing and able to commit themselves to relationships that demand sacrifice and compromise. ____ 7. have difficulty committing to relationships that demand sacrifice and compromise.
____ 8. are inclined to perceive relationships as something one gives to. ____ 8. are inclined to perceive relationships as something one takes from.
____ 9. tend to perceive sex as a means of both achieving physical closeness and expressing love; partner is seen as a person. ____ 9. tend to perceive sex as a means of achieving physical satisfaction but not necessarily expressing love; partner is seen more as an object
____ 10. are able to express their caring feelings in a variety of ways and to say the words "I love you" without fear ____ 10. have difficulty expresing their feelings for others and find the words "I love you" hard to verbalize
Total Plus ______Total Minus ______
Implicit Attitude:
1. I'm okay and others are too.
2. Others can generally be trusted.
3. Life can be difficult, but through mutual interdependence we can make it.
Implicit Attitude:
1. I'm okay, but others are not okay.
2. Others cannot generally be trusted.
3. Life can be difficult, and people have to learn to take care of themselves.

Table 7
Behavioral Expressions of a Sense of Generativity and Stagnation
+       10       +       +       +5       +       +       +     0       -       -       -5       -       -       -     -10
They:They:
____ 1. feel personally concerned about others, their immediate family, which includes future generations and the nature of the world in which those generations will live. ____ 1. are concerned primarily with themselves and show little interest in future generations.
____ 2. reflect varying degrees of involvement with enhancing the welfare of young people and making the world a better palce for them to live and work. ____ 2. show little by way of involvement with the welfare of young people and helping to make the world a better place to live and work.
____ 3. have an interest in producing and caring for children of their own. ____ 3. have little interest in producing or caring for children of their own.
____ 4. reflect a parental kind of concern for the children of others. ____ 4. show little by way of a parental kind of concern for the children of others.
____ 5. tend to focus more on what they can give to others rather than on what they get. ____ 5. tend of focus more on what they can get from others rather than on what they can give.
____ 6. tend to be absorbed in a variety of activities outside of themselves. ____ 6. tend to be absorbed primarily in themselves and their own needs.
____ 7. are interested in leading productive lives and in contributing society. ____ 7. are not particularly interested in being productive or in contributing to society.
____ 8. display other-centered values and attitutes. ____ 8. display self-centered values and attitues.
____ 9. are interested in enhancing what is known, even if it means changing the status quo. ____ 9. are interested in maintaining and preserving what is known in order to conserve the status quo.
____ 10. feel a strong inclination to develop some unique talent or to express themselves creatively. ____ 10. do not feel any particular inclination to develop some unique talent or to express themselves creatively.
Total Plus ______Total Minus ______
Implicit Attitude:
1. What can I give to others?
2. Risks I would like to take include...
3. I enjoy being productive and creative.
Implicit Attitude:
1. What can I get from others?
2. Risks I would like to avoid include...
3. I prefer routine and sameness.

Table 8
Behavioral Expressions of Integrity and Despair
+       10       +       +       +5       +       +       +     0       -       -       -5       -       -       -     -10
They:They:
____ 1. reflect many of the positive ego qualities associated with earlier stages, such as trust, autonomy, initiative, industry and identity. ____ 1. reflect many of the negative qualities associated with earlier stages, such as mistrust, shame, guilt, inferiority, and identity confusion.
____ 2. believe that who they are and what they become are largely the consequences of their own choices. ____ 2. are inclined to believe that who they are and what they have become is not something over which they have had much control.
____ 3. accept the idea that this is their one and only life and that what has happened to it is largely of their own doing. ____ 3. have troble accepting the idea that this is their one and only life and that what has happened to it is largely their own doing.
____ 4. accept death as an inevitable part of the life cycle. ____ 4. show signs of fearing death and do not accept it as part of the life cycle.
____ 5. are able to admit to themselves and others that, for the most part, they have no one but themselves to blame for whatever troubles or failures they have experienced. ____ 5. tend to blame others for whatever troubles or failures they have experienced.
____ 6. are ready and able to defend the dignity of their own life-styles against all physical economic threats, that is, they are not easily pushed around. ____ 6. offer little resistance to physical and economic threats
____ 7. are able to look back on their lives with feelings of pleasure, gratefulness, and appreciation. ____ 7. tend to look back on their lives with feelings of displeasure, regret, and depreciation.
____ 8. tend to be reasonably happy, optimistic people, satisfied with their lives. ____ 8. tend to be fairly unhappy, pessimistic people, dissatisfied with their lives.
____ 9. approach the final stage of their lives with a sense of personal wholeness. ____ 9. approach the final stage of their lives with a sense of personal fragmentation, an incompleness.
____ 10. are able to integrate their past experiences with current realities, and in this way generate a kind of "wisdom" about how to live one's life and cope successfully. ____ 10. seem stuck at the level of blame and disappointment, which makes it difficult for them to learn from their mistakes.
Total Plus ______Total Minus ______
Implicit Attitude:
1. I have much to be thankful for.
2. I am in control of my life.
3. I accept myself for who I am, and I accept others for who they are.
Implicit Attitude:
1. I have little to be thankful for.
2. I have little control over what happens to me.
3. I do not accept myself for who I am, and I wish others could be different.